This article shows how to run a system command from Python and how to execute another program.
subprocess.run()to run commands
Use the subprocess module in the standard library:
import subprocess subprocess.run(["ls", "-l"])
It runs the command described by args. Note that args must be a List of Strings, and not one single String with the whole command. The
run function can take various optional arguments. More information can be found here.
subprocess.run(args, *, stdin=None, input=None, stdout=None, stderr=None, capture_output=False, shell=False, cwd=None, timeout=None, check=False, encoding=None, errors=None, text=None, env=None, universal_newlines=None, **other_popen_kwargs)
Note: In Python 3.4 and earlier, use
subprocess.call() instead of
Another option is to use
import os os.system("ls -l")
This takes one single String as argument. However,
subprocess.run() is more powerful and more flexibel and even the official documentation recommends to use it over
subprocess.Popen()to execute programs
To execute a child program in a new process, use
import subprocess subprocess.Popen(["/usr/bin/git", "commit", "-m", "Fixes a bug."])
.run()it can take a lot of optional arguments which can be found here.
shell=True is discouraged
Popen can take the keyword argument shell. If shell is True, the specified command will be executed through the shell. However, using this is strongly discouraged for security reasons! More information can be found here.