Often, I have to make changes to existing files. For example, some software got updated, so I've to change version numbers. Or perhaps, I've changed the name of assets like input files, images, etc. If it's a single file, I'd likely just use my favorite text editor to open the file, make the changes and save it. If I have to edit multiple files, I'll write a Python script instead.
In this post, you'll learn how to use the
fileinput module to make changes and update the original files.
It is always a good idea to know where to find the documentation. Here's a quote from docs.python: fileinput:
This module implements a helper class and functions to quickly write a loop over standard input or a list of files. If you just want to read or write one file see
And here's the specific method you'll be learning to use in this post:
fileinput.input(files=None, inplace=False, backup='', *, mode='r', openhook=None, encoding=None, errors=None)
Passing files as CLI arguments
Assume you have two text files as shown below:
$ ls *.txt notes.txt tools.txt $ cat tools.txt /home/learnbyexample/programs/command_help.sh /home/learnbyexample/bkp/calc.py /home/learnbyexample/programs/remove_duplicates.sh /home/learnbyexample/programs/calc.py $ cat notes.txt Tool: /home/learnbyexample/programs/remove_duplicates.sh * retains only first copy of duplicate lines * maintains input order
Suppose you changed your folder name from
bin, here's one way to update the above two text files using the
fileinput module. By default, the
inplace argument is
False, so you have to set it to
True when you want to write back the changes to the original files. The
print() function is used to display the output text which will then be redirected to the original files by the
# change_path.py import fileinput with fileinput.input(inplace=True) as f: for ip_line in f: op_line = ip_line.replace('/programs/', '/bin/') print(op_line, end='')
Note that the input filenames aren't specified in the above program. Instead, you'll pass them as command line arguments as shown below:
$ python3 change_path.py *.txt $ cat tools.txt /home/learnbyexample/bin/command_help.sh /home/learnbyexample/bkp/calc.py /home/learnbyexample/bin/remove_duplicates.sh /home/learnbyexample/bin/calc.py $ cat notes.txt Tool: /home/learnbyexample/bin/remove_duplicates.sh * retains only first copy of duplicate lines * maintains input order
If there's no file to process,
fileinput.input() will automatically use
stdin data. If
inplace is set to
True, it'll be ignored.
Here's an example to show how the program discussed in the previous section will work with
$ echo '/home/user/programs/create_venv.py' | python3 change_path.py /home/user/bin/create_venv.py
Passing list of files
If you already know the files that have to be changed, you can pass them to the
files argument. You can pass a single filename or an iterable of filenames.
# file_list.py import fileinput ip_files = ('notes.txt', 'tools.txt') with fileinput.input(files=ip_files, inplace=True) as f: for ip_line in f: op_line = ip_line.replace('/programs/', '/bin/') print(op_line, end='')
Now that you've already specified the files to be modified, you just have to execute the program without any additional CLI arguments:
$ python3 file_list.py
Passing file arguments via CLI has the advantage of using shell features such as wildcard expansion. Python has various modules in case you need such features within the script itself. For example, you can use the glob module for wildcard expansion.
Ideally, you should create backups of the files being modified so that you can recover original files if something goes wrong.
Assume you want to change
brown for the file shown below:
$ cat colors.txt red blue green teal magenta dark-blue sea-green
You can use the
backup argument to create copies of the original files with the given extension.
# inplace_with_backups.py import fileinput with fileinput.input(files='colors.txt', inplace=True, backup='.orig') as f: for ip_line in f: op_line = ip_line.replace('blue', 'brown') print(op_line, end='')
After you execute the above program, you'll see that there's a copy of the original file.
$ python3 inplace_with_backups.py # modified file $ cat colors.txt red brown green teal magenta dark-brown sea-green # copy of the original file $ cat colors.txt.orig red blue green teal magenta dark-blue sea-green
Hope you found this post useful. Happy learning :)