What is self in Python classes

Pratik Choudhari

In object-oriented programming, a class is a template that defines methods and variables common to all objects of a certain kind. The self word in Python refers to an instance of a class, it is not a keyword and can be replaced by any other name.

Instance methods inside a class have to use self as first argument. It helps the methods to track of and manipulate the class state. As self refers to a class instance, different class instances can have different states such as variable values.

Note that when calling instance methods on an object, self is not used!

Example:

class Person: def __init__(self, name, age): self.name = name self.age = age def fetch_name(self): return self.name def fetch_age(self): return self.age def set_age(self, age): self.age = age p = Person("Ross", 30) print(p.fetch_name()) print(p.fetch_age()) p.set_age(31) # no self here! print(p.fetch_age())

Output:

'Ross' 30 31

Manipulating instance variables

Instance variables are defined in the __init__() method also known as the class constructor. These variables can be accessed via the class instance object.

Example:

p = Person("Joey", 29) print(p.name) p.name = "Jim" print(p.name)

Output:

'Joey' 'Jim'

Using another name instead of self

Surprisingly, self could be replaced by any other name irrespective of method.

But while this is technically possible, the convention is to always call this self.

Example:

class Person: def __init__(first_self, name, age): first_self.name = name first_self.age = age def fetch_name(second_self): return second_self.name def fetch_age(third_self): return third_self.age p = Person("Ross", 30) print(p.fetch_name()) print(p.fetch_age())

Output:

'Ross' 30

FREE VS Code / PyCharm Extensions I Use

✅ Write cleaner code with Sourcery, instant refactoring suggestions: Link *

* This is an affiliate link. By clicking on it you will not have any additional costs, instead you will support me and my project. Thank you! 🙏

Check out my Courses